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Birds are known to respond to nest-dwelling parasites by altering beha- viours.

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Some bird species, for example, bring fresh plants to the nest, marlboro cigarettes single marlboro cigarettes single pack contain volatile compounds that repel parasites. There is evidence that some birds living in cities incorporate cigarette butts into their nests, but the effect if any of this behaviour remains unclear.

Butts from smoked cigarettes retain substantial amounts of nicotine and other com- pounds that may also act as arthropod repellents. We provide the first evidence that smoked cigarette butts may function as a parasite repellent in urban bird nests. The amount of cellulose acetate from butts in nests of two widely distributed urban birds marlboro cigarettes single pack negatively associated with the number of nest-dwelling parasites.

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Moreover, when parasites were attracted to heat traps containing smoked or non-smoked cigarette marlboro cigarettes single pack, fewer para- marlboro cigarettes single pack reached the former, presumably due to the presence of nicotine. Because urbanization changes the abundance and type of marlboro cigarettes single pack upon which birds depend, including nesting materials and plants involved in self-medication, our results are consistent with the view that urbanization imposes new challenges on birds that are dealt with using adaptations evolved elsewhere.

Urbanization is increasingly interesting to biologists as it causes significant changes tospecies composition, species interactions, and ecological and evolution- ary processes [1,2].

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Because organisms residing in cities are exposed to different environmental conditions from those in which they evolved, it is relevant to inves- tigate how populations cope with such differences. Potential changes in host—parasite interactions as a consequence of urbanization may thus influence which species are most able to exploit urban landscapes.

A variety of parasites marlboro cigarettes single pack with birds.

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Of these, ectoparasites are taxonomi- cally widespread, and have severe negative impacts on host condition, reproductive performance and survival [3— 5], both because of their direct effects e.

These selective pressures have favoured the evolution of defence mechanisms such as complex immune systems or specific antiparasite behaviours [3,4].

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Self-medication is an antiparasite behaviour in which substances produced by other organisms are exploited to increase fitness [6]. All rights reserved.

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In nests of some urban birds, cellulose cigarette butts are commonly found [15—17]. Butts from smoked cigarettes retain substantial amounts of nicotine and other compounds that may also act as arthropod repellents [18].

Prominent among these is the alkaloid nicotine. This is an antiherbivore chemical derived from the tobacco plant Nicotiana sp.

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Marlboro cigarettes single pack, we hypothesized that cigarette butts may act as an ectoparasite repellent in the nests of urban birds. We conducted field measurements and an experimental field marlboro cigarettes single pack to evaluate the prediction that the pres- ence of cigarette butts in nests reduces the abundance of nest-dwelling ectoparasites. Both multi-brooded species are widely distribu- ted in cities and are known to incorporate cigarette butts in their nests [15,16].

Resistors were fitted with adhesive tape so that parasites became stuck as they reached the source of heat. The cellulose fibres from a smoked experimental or a non-smoked cigarette filter control were attached to the resistors.

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To standardize the experimental treatment, smoked filters were obtained from a single pack of regular filter cigarettes Marlboro consumed by an artificial smoking device. Traps were left for 20 min in each nest, then the adhesive tapes were collected in individually labelled plastic bags and stored at 48C until any attached ectopar- asite was counted under the microscope Karl Zeiss Stemi DV4.

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Nest content empty, eggs, nestlings was recorded. Immediately after chicks fledged, 28 nests of HOSP and 29 nests of HOFI were carefully collected in individually labelled sealed plastic bags and stored at room temperature; nests collected during a week were processed the following weekend. We weighed each nest, assessed the nature and quantity of materials it was composed of, and quantified the number of ectoparasites it contained using Berlese funnels for 24 h under constant temperature and illumination from a 60 W incandescent lamp; [21,22].

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Mites were collected in vials containing 70 per cent etha- nol and counted under the microscope as above. We quantified the contribution of cigarette butts as the total weight of cellulose fibre per nest.

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Ectoparasite abundance was the total number of mites collected. To evaluate differences in ectoparasite abundance between treatments, we used variance component analyses, including nest as a random factor and treatment and nest content as fixed factors.

To test for an association between ectoparasite abundance and the weight of cellulose in nests, a general linear model was performed including species as categorical predictor. Results HOSP nests were heavier